Some of us have bottles of fish oil pills in our refrigerators. We’re hoping these supplements, rich in omega-3 fatty acids, might reap big fish oil benefits for our hearts. But new research suggests, "Don’t bother." Is the research right?
A new analysis 1 of 20 previously published studies found that people (mostly heart disease patients) who increased their omega-3 fatty acid intake (mostly with pills, not food) did not lower their risk of major cardiovascular outcomes, including heart attacks, strokes, and death.
This isn’t the first time the benefits of omega-3s have been seriously questioned. Another meta-analysis2, published in May, also concluded that fish oil was no better than a placebo at preventing heart attacks, strokes, and other cardiovascular-related events.
So what’s going on?
"Good data indicate that there does appear to be a protective effect of eating food, like salmon and sardines, that are rich in omega-3s, but the verdict is still out on the benefits of fish oil capsules," summarizes Dr. Gayl Canfield, Director of Nutrition at the Pritikin Longevity Center.
Adds Dr. Jay Kenney, Nutrition Research Specialist at Pritikin, "When reviewing this new meta-analysis, we first need to ask: Were the omega-3 supplements that the subjects swallowed correcting a deficiency? Or were the pills simply added on top of an already adequate intake of omega-3-rich foods? As is the case with most nutrients, a supplement would most likely be beneficial only if people were deficient in the nutrient."
Unfortunately, we do not know the pre-study omega-3 status of the subjects in the meta-analysis. It was never assessed and/or reported.
The flip side, as past studies have found, is the dangers of over-supplementation. "Research has found, for example, that supplements of vitamins A and E (two vitamins that most Americans are not deficient in) can be harmful," notes Dr. Kenney. Might the same be true of omega-3 supplements for people already well nourished with omega-3s? Possibly. We do know that too much omega-3 can cause blood thinning. There may be other problems. We don’t know for sure because the science, as yet, has not been done.
New prescription drugs
It’s also important to realize that most of the studies in these meta-analyses were completed in the past two decades, a time when management of heart disease had improved tremendously because of new drug strategies. But these drugs, ranging from anti-platelets to statins to ACE inhibitors, tend to work along the same biological pathways that omega-3s do, that is, decreasing lipids, blood clotting, and inflammation. So it could be that adding fish oil pills to an already aggressive drug therapy is, well, redundant. The drugs are already delivering the benefits the fish oil would have provided.
That said, an eating plan like Pritikin, which recommends a healthy dose of omega-3 fatty acids naturally occurring in food, might have significant benefits for people who are not on aggressive pharmaceutical treatment.
To determine if your daily omega-3 intake is sufficient, the Pritikin Program recommends the following:
First, assess your current fish intake.
You are likely consuming significant – and optimal – amounts of omega-3 fatty acids if you're eating fish (3-1/2 to 4-ounce servings, 2 to 3 times a week), especially fish high in omega-3 content like salmon, sardines, herring, and trout.
Second, assess your current walnut and flaxseed intake.
If you're consuming walnuts and flaxseeds every day, you may be consuming significant omega-3 fatty acids. But do keep in mind that nuts and seeds are very high in calorie density, so they’re not a good choice if you’re trying to lose weight. Fish (significantly lower in calorie density) is a better choice.
No magic bullet
"And always remember that no single item – whether it’s fish oil, Vitamin E, pomegranate juice, or anything else touted as ‘the latest and greatest’ – can ever match the benefits of an overall healthy food and fitness plan like Pritikin," states Dr. Canfield.
Focus on lifestyle, not supplements
"With a Pritikin lifestyle," continues Dr. Canfield, "you’re not just getting bountiful omega-3s. You’re also dramatically increasing your intake of heart-healthy foods like fruits, vegetables, whole grains, and beans, and dramatically decreasing your intake of heart-damaging foods like red meat, full-fat dairy foods, and trans fats.
"All these dietary changes, plus regular physical activity, add up to profound – and proven – benefits. Fish oil is a small fry by comparison."